About Huhhot/呼和浩特


Hohhot (Mongolian: Mongolian script: Kökeqota.svg Kökeqota, Mongolian Cyrillic: Хөх хот Höh hot /xɵxˈxɔtʰ/; Chinese: 呼和浩特; pinyin: Hūhéhàotè), abbreviated Hushi (Chinese: 呼市; pinyin: Hūshì), formerly known as Kweisui(traditional Chinese: 歸綏; simplified Chinese: 归绥; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuí, ROC Standard Mandarin:Guīsuī), is the capital of Inner Mongolia in North China,serving as the region’s administrative, economic and cultural centre.[5] Its population was 2,866,615 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 1,980,774 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made up of 4 urban districts.

The name of the city in Mongolian means “Blue City”—Kuku-Khoto in Mongolian—although it is also wrongly referred to as the “Green City.” The color blue in Mongol culture is associated with the sky, eternity and purity; in Chinese, the name can be translated as Qīng Chéng (Chinese: 青城), literally, “Blue/Green City.”The name has also been variously romanized as Kokotan, Kokutan, Kuku-hoton, Huhohaot’e, Huhehot, Huhot, or Köke qota.

Mongol era
Marco Polo reports traveling to the Province of Tenduc, which has been identified as the region around modern-day Hohhot. His itinerary took him from the Tangut nation he called the “Kingdom of Egrigaia” (in modern-day Ningxia), and he took a route eastward into Tenduc.

Ming and Qing era
In 1557, the Tümed Mongol leader Altan Khan began building the Da Zhao Temple on the Tümed plain in order to convince the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) government of his leadership of the southern Mongol tribes. The town that grew up around this temple was called the “Blue Town” (Kokegota in Mongolian). The Ming had been blockading the Mongols’ access to Chinese iron, cotton, and crop seeds, in order to dissuade them from attacking the North China plain. In 1570, Altan Khan successfully negotiated the end of the blockade by establishing a vassal-tributary relationship with the Ming, who changed Kokegota’s name to Guihua (traditional Chinese: 歸化; simplified Chinese: 归化; pinyin: Guīhuà; postal: Kweihua; literally: “Return to Civilization”) in 1575. The population of Guihua grew to over 150,000 in the early 1630s as local Mongol princes encouraged the settlement of Han Chinese merchants. There were occasional attacks on Guihua by Mongol armies, such as the total razing of the city by Ligdan Khan in 1631. Altan Khan and his successors constructed temples and fortresses in 1579, 1602 and 1727. The Tümed Mongols of the area had long since adopted a semiagricultural way of life. Hui merchants gathered north of the gate of the city’s fortress, building a mosque in 1693. Their descendants formed the nucleus of the modern Huimin district.  

After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Kangxi Emperor (reigned 1661–1722) sent troops to control the region, which was of interest to the Qing as a center of study of Tibetan Buddhism. Just northeast of Guihua the Qing built the strong garrison town of Suiyuan (traditional Chinese: 綏遠; simplified Chinese: 绥远; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Suíyuǎn, ROC Standard Mandarin: Suīyuǎn), from which they supervised the defense of southwestern Inner Mongolia against Mongol attacks from the north in 1735–39. Guihua and Suiyuan was merged into Shanxi province and became Guihua County (traditional Chinese: 歸化縣; simplified Chinese: 归化县; pinyin: Guīhuà Xiàn) of Qing China. French missionaries established a Catholic church in Guihua in 1874, but the Christians were forced to flee to Beijing during the antiforeign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.